Bauhaus Online | Magazin http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin en-US Paul Klee and the Oriental Carpet http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/paul-klee-and-the-oriental-carpet <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text-upper"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>In 1910, Munich was the setting for a large and unprecedented exhibition of ‘Masterpieces of Mohammedan Art’, presenting 3600 objects from European, Egyptian and Turkish collections. The exhibition made a tremendous impression on artists such as Wassily Kandinsky and Franz Marc, and Henri Matisse travelled to Munich especially to see it.</p><p>For <a href="/en/atlas/personen/paul-klee" title="Paul Klee">Paul Klee</a>, however – who had been living in Munich since 1906 – it does not appear to be certain whether he even noticed the epoch-making event. There is no evidence and there are no personal notes by him to indicate that Klee visited the exhibition. It is certainly surprising that the artist – who was later to be linked so strongly with the Orient – apparently had no interest at this point in Islamic arts and crafts, including Oriental carpets.</p><h2><strong>Journey to Tunis</strong></h2><p>Even during his famous journey to Tunis in 1914, Klee – as can be seen from his journal notes – was impressed only by the light and the landscape. He completely ignored Oriental art, even though he could hardly have avoided walking on carpets during his time in Tunisia.</p><p>In the Tunis souk, where the outspread carpets must have been hard to miss, the souvenirs he bought to take back for his wife were ‘a fine knife and leather cushions. Two. Also a nice amulet, bracelets and an old coin.’ Not without ‘mistrusting’ the ‘Orientals’, as his travel diary records.<a href="#_ftn1" title="">[1]</a></p><p>Klee appears to have had little interest in Tunisian art, calligraphy, carpets, the abstract decorations on the mosques – in short, everything that specifically constitutes the country’s culture. The watercolours he painted while in Tunisia basically only show motifs of the sort that the average tourist would normally take snapshots of – although Klee, in contrast to his travelling companion August Macke, left out any human figures and concentrated entirely on the experience of the bright and pure colours of the south.</p><p>‘Colour has taken possession of me,’ Klee noted during an excursion to the interior, to Kairouan. ‘I no longer need to search for it. It has taken hold of me forever, I know this. This is what this happy moment means: I and colour are one. I am a painter.’<a href="#_ftn2" title="">[2]</a> What became known as the ‘Tunis journey’ was undoubtedly an inspiration for Klee. It turned an artist who had until then mainly focused on graphic work into the painter who is still popular today.</p><p>By contrast, the culture of the Orient appears to have made little impression on Klee. The idea for an Oriental journal had in fact not been his own; Louis Moilliet, the third painter in the group, had already visited Tunisia once before and had probably enthusiastically described the light and colour there to Macke and Klee.</p><p>It seems, therefore, that Klee only began to digest the influence of the Orient afterwards. However, four months after he returned from the visit to Tunisia, which had lasted just under two weeks, the First World War broke out in August 1914. The war years – Klee was involved in a noncombatant role in the last two years of the fighting – initially seem to have led to his experiences during the journey to Tunis remaining largely unassimilated. During this period, the metaphysical element comes to the fore for Klee intellectually and in his artistic work. This was Klee’s way of dealing with the war – basically not situating it in the here and now, but regarding it as something timeless and cosmic.</p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-extrabild"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/paul-klee-and-the-oriental-carpet" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full imagecache-linked imagecache-article_full_linked"><img src="http://bauhaus-online.de/files/imagecache/article_full/magazin-bilder/kleeteppich.jpg" alt="" title="Paul Klee, carpet, 1927, from: Auf der Suche nach dem Orient. Paul Klee. Teppich der Erinnerung, Zentrum Paul Klee Bern (ed.) (Ostfildern, 2009, p. 147)" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full" width="435" height="405" /></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-emvideo field-field-article-video"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/paul-klee-and-the-oriental-carpet"></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <h2><strong>Eastern memories and recollections</strong></h2><p>After the war, however, something surprising happens with Klee: his experience of the Orient resurfaces for him. He now begins to produce pictures that show Oriental influence in their motifs and style. The experience seems to be enhanced in memory, appearing more real than it did when he was actually there. During the 1920s, Oriental motifs become more frequent in his work. In 1922, for example, he painted the ‘Arabian City’ and in 1924 the ‘Oriental Castle’<a href="#_ftn1" title="">[3]</a>; in the same year, Klee created – in ‘Mural’ and ‘Curtain’ – paintings that are quite obviously based on carpets, or to be more precise on the monochrome Kilims, with their detailed patterns, made by the Tunisian Berbers. Klee may have seen actual carpets of this type when he was in Tunisia in 1914; or perhaps he examined carpets from the Maghreb later on. No exact information is available. In any case, due to its frequency the Orient became a kind of trademark in Klee’s pictorial subjects during the 1920s. Wilhelm Hausenstein’s book Kairuan oder eine Geschichte vom Maler Klee [Kairouan, or a Tale of the Painter Klee], published in 1921, even transfigures Klee’s visit to the city during the journey to Tunisia into a kind of awakening experience for him. The book further intensifies Klee’s own statements about his destiny as a painter, which already contain mystical elements themselves. These include his vague hint to Hausenstein that his mother’s forebears ‘might have been Oriental, via southern France’.<a href="#_ftn2" title="">[4]</a></p><h2><strong>Mutual influences at the Bauhaus</strong></h2><p>Klee then appears to have begun to style himself retrospectively as an Oriental. In addition, in 1923 he more or less accidentally became the head of the weaving workshop at the Bauhaus for a brief period and was thus placed in a quite practical way in connection with carpets – the great domain of Oriental art. It was flat-woven textiles that were produced at the Bauhaus, rather than hand-knotted carpets. In any case, the weaving workshop at the Bauhaus was initially quite amateurish. The Bauhaus students Gunta Stölzl and Benita Otte, who inaugurated the weaving workshop on their own initiative, had to go to Krefeld to begin with in order to learn weaving techniques and how to dye yarn. There was no one at the Bauhaus to teach them these methods. However, the naivety on the topic at the college had advantages – the weavers were able to work without guidelines or the burdens of tradition. The Bauhaus in any case wanted to innovate in many ways. Klee only taught the weavers the basics of form and colour, but not weaving, since he himself had no command of the craft. It was his basic teaching that was important here. Conversely, the technique of weaving appears to have influenced Klee’s art and his painting technique. However, this was again only in retrospect. At the Bauhaus, Stölzl and Otte anticipated in textiles around 1923 what Klee was only to translate to the canvas later, after travelling to the Orient for a second time.</p><h2><strong>Journey to Egypt</strong></h2><p>Particularly after Klee’s journey to Egypt from mid-December 1928 to mid-January 1929, the impressions of the southern light, the ‘View of the Land of Fruits’ (the title of a painting from 1932) on the Nile and the techniques of weaving fuse into new forms of pictorial invention. Major works emerged after the journey to Egypt, such as ‘Main Path and Byways’ (1929) or the watercolour ‘Pyramids’ (1930), and then above all the cipher paintings inspired perhaps by hieroglyphs in Klee’s late work up to his death in 1940, such as ‘Rich Harbour’ of 1938.<a href="#_ftn1" title="">[5]</a> A quite different influence now becomes visible here as well, however, as the paintings now strikingly resemble the raffia weaving<a href="#_ftn2" title="">[6]</a> of the Kuba people of the Congo – particularly the appliqué skirts of the Ngeende group. These raffia works are highly admired by connoisseurs.<a href="#_ftnref" title="">[7]</a></p><h2><strong>State of research</strong></h2><p>Whether and where Klee might have seen such works, or whether he again only discovered them in retrospect while intellectually and artistically assimilating the journey to Egypt, has not yet been satisfactorily investigated. However, there are features noticeably in common between the art of Islamic carpet-making and Klee’s work following his two Oriental journeys. In the few studies that have been conducted so far on Klee’s relationship to the Orient, an ‘elective affinity’<a href="#_ftn1" title="">[8]</a> has been mentioned, for example. Any direct influence is denied or dismissed with the meaningless statement, ‘It is unnecessary to offer any explanations for this affinity.’<a href="#_ftn2" title="">[9]</a> It is claimed that there are merely ‘parallels’ between two worlds – Klee’s inner world and the ‘millennia-old Islamic world.’</p><p>So far, there is only circumstantial evidence to show that this view needs to be contradicted and that there certainly do exist direct and indirect influences from Klee’s journeys and probably through his knowledge of publications on the topic. However, the subject of ‘Klee and the Oriental Carpet’ has not yet been explicitly investigated in art-historical research. It is only recently that textiles, and in particular Oriental weaving and carpets, have been brought into focus as a source of inspiration for so-called classic modernism.<a href="#_ftn3" title="">[10]</a></p><h2><strong>Ex oriente ars</strong></h2><p>It is certainly remarkable that almost all of the discoveries and innovations of modernism had precursors and sources of inspiration outside of Europe. With regard to ‘Negro sculpture’ as a model for Expressionist and Cubist sculpture, this has long since become a commonplace.<a href="#_ftn1" title="">[11]</a> It is no longer controversial nowadays to exhibit Picasso’s paintings in the museum along with fetishes and ancestor figures from Africa.<a href="#_ftn2" title="">[12]</a> Art history has already shifted its position here towards a subject foreign to it. With regard to the Oriental carpet and its potential influence on modernist art, this rapprochement has yet to take place, however. The reasons for this peculiar delay appear to lie in the fact that textile work has previously not been regarded as an art form in Europe. Weaving has only existed here in the form of tapestry (Gobelins); otherwise, carpets have been imported from the Orient – and for a very long period already, as depictions of carpets in paintings by Hans Holbein and Lorenzo Lotto show. However, there is a lack of an indigenous European carpet-making culture; weaving was for a long period regarded by art historians as an inferior handicraft, and one that was also almost exclusively carried out by women. It is only today, in the wake of globalization and gender studies, that our eyes have opened to the previously overlooked influence of the Oriental carpet on modernism. Paul Klee’s work has yet to be reassessed on the basis of these new premises.</p><p></p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[1]</a> Ernst-Gerhard Güse, ed., Die Tunisreise: Klee, Macke, Moilliet(Stuttgart: Hatje, 1982; exhib. cat., Westfälisches Landesmuseum für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte Münster), p. 52.</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[2]</a> Carola Giedion-Welcker, Paul Klee in Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten(Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1961), figure on p. 43.</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[3]</a> Michael Baumgartner, ed.,Auf der Suche nach dem Orient: Paul Klee, Teppich der Erinnerung (Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz, 2009; exhib. cat., Zentrum Paul Klee, Berne),figure on p. 225.</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[4]</a> Cited after Michael Baumgartner, ‘Paul Klee und der Mythos vom Orient’, in ibid.,Auf der Suche nach dem Orient2009 (see note 3), p. 132.</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[5]</a> Carola Giedion-Welcker,Paul Klee (see note 2), figure on pp. 150–1.</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[6]</a> Raffia is a plant belonging to the palm family.</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[7]</a> Cf. John Gillow,African Textiles: Colour and Creativity across a Continent(London: Thames &amp; Hudson, 2003), p. 190.</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[8]</a> Eloise Brac de la Perrière and Jean-Pierre van Staevel, ‘Die islamische Kunst im Spiegel von Paul Klees Werk’, in Baumgartner,Auf der Suche nach dem Orient 2009 (see note 3), p. 23.</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[9]</a> Ibid.</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[10]</a> Oddly, several large exhibitions on the topic opened in 2013: ‘Kunst &amp; Textil. Stoff als Material und Idee in der Moderne von Klimt bis heute (Kunstmuseum Wolfsburg), ‘Marokkanische Teppiche und die Kunst der Moderne’ (Neue Sammlung, Munich) and ‘Decorum’ (Museé d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris).</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[11]</a> Carl Einstein’s bookNegerplastik was published as long ago as 1915.</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[12]</a> As in the Berggruen Collection at the State Museums in Berlin.</p><p><strong><br /></strong></p><p><strong>Ronald Berg works as art critic and journalist in Berlin.</strong></p> </div> </div> </div> http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/paul-klee-and-the-oriental-carpet#comments Bauhaus Faces Painting Research Fri, 21 Mar 2014 21:02:22 +0000 Ronald Berg 8584 at http://bauhaus-online.de Once a ‘Palace for Cars’ – Today Due for the Wrecking Ball http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/once-a-%E2%80%98palace-for-cars%E2%80%99-today-due-for-the-wrecking-ball <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text-upper"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>‘The multi-storey car park in Kantstrasse (1929/30) is the last building by the architect Hermann Zweigenthal, alias Herman Herrey, that has survived unaltered in Germany and it also represents an early work by his partner Richard Paulick, who later rose to fame. Above all, however, it is a unique monument to motor transport that is of national significance – probably the most important large-scale indoor car park dating from the period of interwar modernism in Germany.’ So read the decision taken in 2010 by Berlin’s State Council for the Preservation of Historic Buildings and Monuments. The building had already been made a listed monument in 1991. It is all the more surprising that the owners of the Kant Parking Garage have now applied for permission to demolish it.</p><p>Following a trip he had made to America in 1929, Louis Serlin, a Berlin businessman, commissioned the Viennese architect Hermann Zweigenthal and Richard Paulick – a former Bauhaus member who was head of Walter Gropius’s architectural office in Berlin at the time – to design Germany’s first multi-storey car park, the first large indoor parking garage in Berlin, in Kantstrasse 126–127 in the Charlottenburg district. In collaboration with the Lohmüller, Korschelt and Renker architectural office, which had specialized in multi-storey car park construction, a magnificent ‘palace for cars’ was to be designed for Berlin based on American models – on an extremely small site. The team of architects successfully devised a multi-storey car park that was unprecedented in Germany, made of reinforced concrete with a glass-curtain façade (made by the Frankfurt glass-roof manufacturers Claus Meyn KG), which is still preserved largely in its original state. The building represents a double helix in concrete, with separate entrance and exit ramps for cars, and with sliding gates in the interior that allow separate individual compartments to be closed. Six storeys rise on an area of 16,000 square metres, with space for 300 cars. The façade is faced in clinker and decorated with broad rows of windows. The sign reading ‘Kantgaragen’ can still be seen on the side. Spaces for car washing, car repair workshops and a petrol station are installed on the ground floor. Only the carwash spaces have given way to additional parking spaces today; the petrol station and repair workshops are still in operation and can still be seen through the open façade from the street. When the modern car park was opened in October 1930, Serlin’s conception of a palace for cars had been fully implemented: the Kant Parking Garage was also called ‘Kant Garage Palace’ or ‘Serlin ramp building’ after its two-way spiral ramp.</p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-extrabild"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/once-a-%E2%80%98palace-for-cars%E2%80%99-today-due-for-the-wrecking-ball" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full imagecache-linked imagecache-article_full_linked"><img src="http://bauhaus-online.de/files/imagecache/article_full/magazin-bilder/bhd_petras_kantstrasse_126_127-35.jpg" alt="" title="The Kant Garage Palace in Kanststraße 126/27 in Berlin-Charlottenburg" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full" width="435" height="360" /></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-emvideo field-field-article-video"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/once-a-%E2%80%98palace-for-cars%E2%80%99-today-due-for-the-wrecking-ball"></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>In <a href="/en/atlas/jahre/1930" title="1930">1930</a>, the Kant Parking Garage was one of only two multi-storeys of this type that existed in Europe, and even up to 1957 it was the only one in Germany. After Serlin had been compulsorily dispossessed in 1938 because he was Jewish, the Nazis ‘Aryanized’ the Kant Parking Garage and used it for their own purposes. At the end of the war, the former owner returned to Berlin and found his ‘palace for cars’ almost completely undamaged. Five years later, the building was returned to his ownership. Right down to the present day, this historic witness to the history of the automobile is still in use as a private garage. Admittedly, it looks rather run down, but there’s nothing that could not be repaired by restoration work. And although the Kant Parking Garage is the last surviving building by Zweigenthal and represents one of the unique monuments to the architectural history of the Weimar Republic, its current owner has applied to the Lower Authority for Historic Monuments for permission to demolish it for economic reasons. The building is the last surviving multi-storey car park dating from the 1920s, but there appears to be little public interest in preserving historic vehicle structures.</p><p>There has only been a slight murmur of protest in the press, although it did include a demand for this unique building to preserved and used appropriately. René Hartmann, for example, wrote inTagesspiegelthat there was probably no better location than the Kant Parking Garage for presenting the automobile collection of the German Museum of Technology in Berlin, currently collecting dust, in a suitable setting: an excellent idea. Another journalist criticized the current owner’s failure to carry out maintenance of the Kant Parking Garage, causing the façade and substance of the building to become dilapidated.</p><p>Serious structural alterations are now also to be carried out in Karl-Marx-Allee 71 as well, on the roof of Block C, the penthouse apartment in which Richard Paulick lived from 1952 until his death in 1979. The old wood-framed windows are to be replaced with insulation glazing. This might be more economically effective, but it would at least severely alter the building’s historic substance in Paulick’s original apartment, which is still largely preserved in its original state. The integrity of the ensemble, with an almost unaltered ground plan, original flooring and old doors, as well as the preserved kitchen wall cupboards and wall-to-wall shelving in Chinese wood, would be destroyed by the insulation glazing. Philipp Oswalt, former Director of the Bauhaus Dessau Foundation, who is campaigning for the preservation of the Kant Garage as well, says, ‘The loss of the box-type windows would severely alter the appearance and character of the apartment. The airtightness of the windows would also make it necessary to instal ventilation lines in the apartment that would impair the design and proportion of the rooms.’</p><p>The same question arises as with other historic buildings in Berlin, including another palace – the GDR’s Palace of the Republic: why it is that Berlin again and again allows buildings that represent testimony to the past to be converted, architecturally altered, or demolished – only to discover later that it would have been possible to preserve them and use them in practical ways without destroying their character and without removing these records of past eras, whether or not they happen to be attractive. In the final analysis, they are part of Berlin’s architectural history.</p><p> </p><p>Bibliography:</p><p>Bernau, Nicolaus. ‘Auf Verschliess gefahren’,Berliner Zeitung,8 August 2013. Available at: <a href="http://www.berliner-zeitung.de/kultur/kant-garagen-auf-verschleiss-gefahren,10809150,23950430.html">http://www.berliner-zeitung.de/kultur/kant-garagen-auf-verschleiss-gefahren,10809150,23950430.html</a> (accessed 13 September 2013).</p><p>Hartmann, René. ‘Ein Palast, der nach Abgasen duftet’,Der Tagesspiegel,1 August 2013. Available at: <a href="http://www.tagesspiegel.de/kultur/abriss-der-kant-garage-ein-palast-der-nach-abgasen-duftet/8575420.html">http://www.tagesspiegel.de/kultur/abriss-der-kant-garage-ein-palast-der-nach-abgasen-duftet/8575420.html</a> (accessed 29 August 2013).</p><p>Landesdenkmalrat Berlin. Minutes of the State Council for the Preservation of Historic Buildings and Monuments for 27 August 2010. Available at: <a href="http://www.stadtentwicklung.berlin.de/denkmal/landesdenkmalrat/de/beschluesse/download/protokoll_2010_08_27.pdf%20">http://www.stadtentwicklung.berlin.de/denkmal/landesdenkmalrat/de/beschluesse/download/protokoll_2010_08_27.pdf</a> (accessed 13 September 2013).</p><p>Scheffler, Martina. ‘Beliebt bei Reichen, Räubern und der RAF’,Berliner Zeitung,28 July 2013. Available at: <a href="http://www.berliner-zeitung.de/archiv/die-charlottenburger-kant-garagen-waren-193%200-das-erste-garagenhochhaus-berlins--sie-haben-eine-bewegte-geschichte-beliebtbei-reichen--raeubern-und-der-raf,10810590,10732696.html%20">http://www.berliner-zeitung.de/archiv/die-charlottenburger-kant-garagen-waren-193 0-das-erste-garagenhochhaus-berlins--sie-haben-eine-bewegte-geschichte-beliebtbei-reichen--raeubern-und-der-raf,10810590,10732696.html</a> (accessed 29 August 2013).</p><p>Stiftung Bauhaus Dessau. ‘Oswalt: Kant-Garagen erhalten’, press release dated 21 August 2013.</p><p> </p><p> </p> </div> </div> </div> http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/once-a-%E2%80%98palace-for-cars%E2%80%99-today-due-for-the-wrecking-ball#comments Architecture Berlin History Fri, 21 Mar 2014 20:51:45 +0000 Anja Guttenberger 8583 at http://bauhaus-online.de The Last Two Years of the Bauhaus http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/the-last-two-years-of-the-bauhaus <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text-upper"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>The <a href="http://www.bauhaus.de">Bauhaus Archive / Museum of Design</a> is publishing for the first time the full text of the letters written to his mother by Bauhaus student Hans Keßler (1906–1997) between <a href="/en/atlas/jahre/1931" title="1931">1931</a> and <a href="/en/atlas/jahre/1933" title="1933">1933</a>. These historic documents discuss, sometimes in detail, the political and internal events taking place during the last two years of the Bauhaus’s existence. After being driven out of Dessau, the progressive art school moved to Berlin in <a href="/en/atlas/jahre/1932" title="1932">1932</a> and was finally closed there in 1933 under pressure from the Nazis.</p><p>Keßler’s letters to his mother are among the few surviving documents on the last two years of the Bauhaus. With their remarks about political events and about the Bauhaus student’s everyday life, they are important primary sources for cultural history. In April 1933, the <a href="/en/atlas/das-bauhaus/idee/bauhaus-berlin" title="Bauhaus Berlin">Bauhaus building in Berlin</a> was surrounded by the police and SA, searched and sealed off. Several students were temporarily arrested. To prevent political 'Gleichschaltung' (enforced conformity with Nazi doctrine), the last Director of the Bauhaus, <a href="/en/atlas/personen/ludwig-mies-van-der-rohe" title="Ludwig Mies van der Rohe">Ludwig Mies van der Rohe</a>, along with the college’s remaining lecturers in Berlin decided in July 1933 that the Bauhaus was to be dissolved.</p><p>The letters are being published at the start of the ‘Trienniale of Modernism’, which already opened on 27 September 2013. The Trienniale is dedicated to the world cultural legacy of architectural modernism in Germany, and in its opening year the content is based on the current Berlin theme year of ‘Diversity Destroyed’. In 2013, Berlin is commemorating the social and cultural diversity of the city that was destroyed under Nazism.</p><p>Hans Keßler. Die letzten zwei Jahre des Bauhauses. Briefe eines Bauhäuslers an seine Mutter [Hans Keßler: The Last Two Years of the Bauhaus – Letters from a Bauhaus Student to his Mother] is the second volume in the publication series ‘Bauhäusler. Dokumente aus dem Bauhaus-Archiv’, initiated by the Bauhaus Archive in 2012. The letters are illustrated with photographs and artistic work by Hans Kessler from the courses he attended at the Bauhaus.</p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-extrabild"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/the-last-two-years-of-the-bauhaus" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full imagecache-linked imagecache-article_full_linked"><img src="http://bauhaus-online.de/files/imagecache/article_full/magazin-bilder/kessler_ar.jpg" alt="" title="book cover" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full" width="435" height="315" /></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-emvideo field-field-article-video"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/the-last-two-years-of-the-bauhaus"></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><strong>Hans Keßler. Die letzten zwei Jahre des Bauhauses. Briefe eines Bauhäuslers an seine Mutter, ed. Bauhaus Archive Berlin, 2013. Available at the Bauhaus Archive / Museum of Design in Berlin for € 14.90, or by mail order from the Bauhaus shop for € 19.90.</strong></p> </div> </div> </div> http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/the-last-two-years-of-the-bauhaus#comments Bauhaus Faces Berlin Dessau Publication Fri, 21 Mar 2014 20:44:10 +0000 Bauhaus-Archiv / Museum für Gestaltung in Berlin 8582 at http://bauhaus-online.de The Triadic Ballet http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/the-triadic-ballet <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text-upper"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>Gerhard Bohner’s reconstruction, revision and choreography of <a href="/en/atlas/personen/oskar-schlemmer" title="Oskar Schlemmer">Oskar Schlemmer</a>’s "Triadic Ballet" (1922), which he carried out for the Berlin Academy of Arts in 1977 in a unique process of artistic reconstruction to accompany a newly commissioned composition by Hans-Joachim Hespos, was one of the most successful productions in recent dance history.</p><p>The Bavarian State Ballet in Munich and the Academy of Arts in Berlin are in 2014 jointly producing a new version of Bohner’s choreography for the first time, sponsored by the Federal Foundation for Culture (Bundeskulturstiftung), with performances by young dancers from the Bavarian State Ballet II, Junior Company. Ivan Liška, the Director of the State Ballet, and ballet mistress Colleen Scott are responsible for the artistic direction and rehearsal. They were both soloists in almost all of the performances and international tours of "TheTriadic Ballet" between 1977 and 1989.</p><p>The production forms part of the ‘Dance Nation Germany’ programme for the Bavarian State Ballet. The programme also features a new production and choreography for Wassily Kandinsky’s ‘The Yellow Sound’ on 4 April 2014 and of "Le Sacre du Printemps" by Mary Wigman on 14 June.</p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-extrabild"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/the-triadic-ballet" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full imagecache-linked imagecache-article_full_linked"><img src="http://bauhaus-online.de/files/imagecache/article_full/magazin-bilder/das_triadische_ballett_kostuem_310513_113.jpg" alt="" title="The Triadic Ballet, costume, 310513 (113)" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full" width="435" height="315" /></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-emvideo field-field-article-video"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/the-triadic-ballet"></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>"The Triadic Ballet", a ballet by <a href="/en/atlas/personen/oskar-schlemmer" title="Oskar Schlemmer">Oskar Schlemmer</a></p><p>Reconstruction, revised version and choreography: Gerhard Bohner; music: Hans-Joachim Hespos; costume reconstruction and revision: Ulrike Dietrich. A production by the Academy of Arts (UA 1977).</p><p>Reconstruction and new production 2014: rehearsal Colleen Scott, artistic direction Ivan Liška</p><p>Producer/documentation: Bettina Wagner-Bergelt</p><p>Bavarian State Ballet II / Junior Company</p><p>Music from recording</p><p>Premiere 4 June 2014, Reithalle Munich</p><p>The production will be available for tours from October 2014.</p> </div> </div> </div> http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/the-triadic-ballet#comments Dessau Fri, 21 Mar 2014 20:32:11 +0000 Anja Guttenberger 8581 at http://bauhaus-online.de bauhaus: open archive http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/bauhaus-open-archive <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text-upper"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>The Bauhaus Archive / Museum of Design in Berlin investigates and presents to the public the history and influence of the Bauhaus (1919–1933) – the twentieth century’s most important college of architecture, design and art. Housed in the building on the Landwehrkanal designed by Bauhaus founder Walter Gropius, the world’s most comprehensive collection of materials on the history of the college and every aspect of its work is open to everyone interested. In addition to topics associated with the Bauhaus, the Bauhaus Archive also addresses current issues in contemporary architecture and design and aims to serve as the museum of design within Berlin’s museum scene.</p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-extrabild"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/bauhaus-open-archive" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full imagecache-linked imagecache-article_full_linked"><img src="http://bauhaus-online.de/files/imagecache/article_full/magazin-bilder/poster_zuse_ueberarbeitet.jpg" alt="" title="Plakat zum &quot;bauhaus: open archive Walter Gropius&quot;" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full" width="308" height="435" /></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-emvideo field-field-article-video"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/bauhaus-open-archive"></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><strong>W h a t</strong>: The entire posthumous materials belonging to the founder of the Bauhaus and first Director of the renowned art college, <a href="/en/atlas/personen/walter-gropius" title="Walter Gropius">Walter Gropius</a>, and his wife <a href="/en/atlas/personen/ise-gropius-frank" title="Ise Gropius (-Frank)">Ise Gropius</a>, which have been held by the Bauhaus Archive since the mid-1980s, are to be digitized by the end of 2014 in the ‘Walter Gropius Open Archive’. The two groups of materials contain 5000 photos and 14,000 documents – a unique research source on the Bauhaus and its age for the history of modern art, architecture, and culture. In addition to detailed photographic documentation of Gropius’s own work and that of other architects (c. 3000 pictures), his posthumous papers also include photos capturing private moments (c. 2000 pictures). The presence of valuable originals, some of which are now only held by the Bauhaus Archive, make the Gropius papers a unique source. In his extensive correspondence from 1910 to 1969, Gropius exchanged ideas with more than 1000 correspondents – including famous artists, architects, literary figures and politicians of the period such as Max Bill, <a href="/en/atlas/personen/marcel-breuer" title="Marcel Breuer">Marcel Breuer,</a> Albert Einstein, <a href="/en/atlas/personen/lyonel-feininger" title="Lyonel Feininger">Lyonel Feininger</a>, Theodor Heuss, Le Corbusier, <a href="/en/atlas/personen/laszlo-moholy-nagy" title="László Moholy-Nagy">László Moholy-Nagy</a>, <a href="/en/atlas/personen/ludwig-mies-van-der-rohe" title="Ludwig Mies van der Rohe">Ludwig Mies van der Rohe</a>, Erwin Piscator, Hans Scharoun, Kurt Schwitters, Henry van de Velde and Frank Lloyd Wright.</p><p><strong>W h y</strong>: The aim is to secure the Gropius papers for posterity in digital form and make access to the collection easier for academic researchers, students and interested individuals. This will promote the role of Bauhaus Archive as a central educational site for the history of the Bauhaus and will strengthen Berlin’s significance as a base for academic research.</p><p><strong>H o w</strong>: After complete processing and digitization of the documents and photographs, the metadata will be available free of charge in an online database and will be internationally accessible.</p><p><strong>W h e r e</strong>: www.bauhaus.de</p> </div> </div> </div> http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/bauhaus-open-archive#comments Architecture Bauhaus Faces Berlin Design Education Research Fri, 21 Mar 2014 20:25:03 +0000 Anja Guttenberger 8580 at http://bauhaus-online.de Oskar Schlemmer, Jean Tinguely, Erich Hauser http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/oskar-schlemmer-jean-tinguely-erich-hauser <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text-upper"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>The pre-Lent carnival celebrations on Shrove Tuesday in the Alemannic region (in Alsace, Switzerland, and south-western Germany) take many forms. On "Schmotzige Dunschtig" (‘dirty Tuesday’), the "Hohe Grobgünstige Narrengericht zu Stocken" (High and Roughly Favourable Fools’ Court of Stockach) sits in formal session and condemns important figures from political life to supply a penance of one or more ‘buckets’ of wine, depending on the extent of their guilt, by the fourth Sunday in Lent, Laetare – the same punishment that used to be meted out to offenders among Stockach’s citizens in the olden days.</p><p>In the ‘five-valley city’ of Schramberg, the carnival celebrators gather on Shrove Monday along the Schiltach river to watch daring Fools inside merrily rigged-up washtubs trying to keep their feet dry along a 500-yard course "da Bach na" (‘down the brook’). Those who don’t succeed and keel over get soaking wet and are jeered at. And anyone who later sings something fine such as the Schramberg Fools’ March for theHansel, the White Fool of Schramberg, may receive a piece of "Bretzelsegen" (pretzel alms) from him:</p><p>Meek, meek, meek is the cat<br />And if the cat doesn’t stay meek<br />Then your lass won’t like it …</p><p>Down the brook, down the brook<br />With care and with sorrow<br /> You’re on your Ash, your Ash, your Ash Wednesday morrow!</p><p>[ash/arse]</p><p>In the "Rottweiler Narrensprung" (Fools’ Leap in Rottweil) on Shrove Monday and Tuesday, there is a colourful and merry but gruesome masquerade that parades through the town: the "Gschell" (Bell) and the "Biss" (Bite), the "Rottweiler Mädele" (Rottweil Maids) in their fringed dresses, the devilish "Schantle" (Disgrace) and "Federahannes" (Jack with Feathers), stubborn "Bennerrössle" (ponies) and the lusty "Guller" (Rooster).</p><p>In Basle, punctually at 4 a.m. on the Monday morning after Ash Wednesday – the dark winter’s night is even darker because the streetlights are switched off – the carnival groups parade on their morning tattoo through the narrow alleys to the center of the old town. With optional dress regulations (‘charivari’) but masked, they carry lamps on their heads and march behind a grand procession lantern, on which they have written all sorts of oddities and rhymed nonsense from the town’s contemporary history – understood only by Basle locals, of course, and not by the thousands of visitors who have arrived. By the break of day – when most of the spectators have already moved to the old town’s pubs for their "Mehlsuppe" (flour soup) – these glowing fireflies have passed with measured strides through the town, accompanied by the shrill sounds of piccolo flutes and the heavy rhythms of drums.</p><p>All of this, and much more, is both peculiar and fantastic and has its roots in ancient pagan and Christian popular customs, as well as in craftsmen’s guild traditions (which is why many of the carnival associations are still known as ‘guilds’) and in the romantic yearnings of bourgeois society. It usually has a lot to do with craftsmanship, but hardly ever with fine art and it certainly has nothing to do with ‘modern art’. But there are no rules without exceptions – and I would like to describe three such exceptions here. All three of the artists discussed are associated with modernism, they have their roots in the Alemannic region and they drew inspiration from fools’ carnival costumes or even included their own art work in the carnival.</p><p>The first is <a href="/en/atlas/personen/oskar-schlemmer" title="Oskar Schlemmer">Oskar Schlemmer</a>.<a href="#_ftn1" title="">[1]</a> Schlemmer became well known not only through his painting, but above all also as a teacher at the Bauhaus, where he headed the theatre course, among other activities there. His father was a master baker in Mainz, but was also an actor and a comedy playwright who was involved in organizing the carnival there. His son may have inherited his passion for dance and theatre, as well as for the funny side of life, from him. Oskar Schlemmer took a two-year apprenticeship in an inlay woodwork workshop in Stuttgart and studied painting at the Academy of Art there together with Willi Baumeister. At the Bauhaus, he developed a comprehensive theory of drama that covered every form of presentation – from solemn ritual to clowns’ tricks, acrobatics and masquerade. Together with his students, particularly Andor Weininger and Xanti Schawinsky, he also had a shaping influence on the festive and party culture that was part of life at the Bauhaus in Dessau – it was at his suggestion, for example, that the famous ‘White Party’ was organized. Weininger mainly became well known as the founder and leader of the Bauhaus Band, in which Xanti also played an important part as a multi-instrumentalist. For the fourth figurine in his Bauhaus dances, a kind of grotesque and comical contrast figure, Schlemmer created the figure of the ‘Musical Clown’. His own description of it was as follows:</p><p>‘The “musical clown”, deliberately grotesquely exaggerated, with a coverless umbrella, glass-bead curls, goggle eyes, balloon nose, children’s saxophone, accordion on his chest, xylophone on his arm, miniature fiddle, mangy leg with military drum, gauze train, and pointed shoes, adds a sensitively resounding companion to the other three to form a serious quartet.'</p><p>The clown had a full costume, which was heavy and quite awkward. In formal terms, it was a parody of the Bauhaus’s pictorial style: ungainly, asymmetrical, multicoloured, and trivial. Andor Weininger, whom Schlemmer had put inside the costume, must have made a hilariously comical impression in it. The effect depended not only on his clumsy and deliberate movements, but above all on the ‘music’ that he tried to produce on the toy instruments. What was heard was always something different from what the audience expected: when Andor blew into the toy trumpet, tuba sounds were heard. He coaxed the virtuoso solo of a concert violin out of the tiny fiddle. And the little drum produced a military march. All of the sounds actually came from offstage and were played from a gramophone or by musicians behind the scenes. At the encore, everything became even more confused: the fiddle sounded like a trombone, the horn like a fiddle, and so on.</p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-extrabild"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/oskar-schlemmer-jean-tinguely-erich-hauser" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full imagecache-linked imagecache-article_full_linked"><img src="http://bauhaus-online.de/files/imagecache/article_full/magazin-bilder/consemueller_schlemmer_musikalclown1927.jpg" alt="" title="Oskar Schlemmer, ‘Musical Clown’ , 1927 Photo: Erich Consemüller Bauhaus Archive / Museum of Design, Berlin " class="imagecache imagecache-article_full" width="435" height="210" /></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-emvideo field-field-article-video"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/oskar-schlemmer-jean-tinguely-erich-hauser"></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>This carnival contribution by Oskar Schlemmer was at some considerable remove from the "Fasnet" (Shrove Tuesday) he knew from home in Mainz, but the link was much closer for the Swiss object artist Jean Tinguely.<a href="#_ftn1" title="">[2]</a> Even as a child, he had been fascinated – and also scared – by the processions held during the carnival in Basle. He later took up this connection between gruesome fantasy and grotesque comedy when designing charivari costumes for his carnival group, the "Kuttlebutzer". The "Kuttlebutzer" was a so-called ‘free’ or ‘wild’ carnival group that did not keep to the strict rules of the Basle Carnival. "Kuttlebutzer" means ‘tripe-cleaners’ – people who wash the animal intestines needed for tripe dishes, an extremely laborious task. Figuratively, it means someone who states his own opinion very forcibly. In an exhibition timed to coincide with this year’s Basle Carnival, the Tinguely Museum focused on the activities of this carnival group. Jean Tinguely was involved with the "Kuttlebutzer" for nearly twenty years and designed several carnival processions for them, including the ‘Urban Indians’ (1976), the ‘Atomic Police’ (1985) and the ‘Insolvency Vulture Procession’ (1988) – the latter together with Christoph Gloor, a fellow-artist.</p><p>When he was a child, Tinguely once said in an interview, the carnival groups seemed like horrific processions of ghosts to him. This recollection haunts his costume designs as well; his ‘Atomic Police’, for example, look nothing like an orderly police squad, but rather like a horde of cannibals – symbolizing a return to an atavistic era after a global nuclear war. He designed a monstrous witch in a wheel-chair as an accompanying figure.</p><p>Of the three artists, sculptor Erich Hauser<a href="#_ftn1" title="">[3]</a> perhaps had the closest relationship to his home town’s carnival. The Hauser Museum in Rottweil has now become a well-known attraction well beyond the local area. In addition to showing Hauser’s own works, the museum also presents his art collection, including a collection of old carnival masks. Hauser had his workshop in Dunningen, near Rottweil, for a long period. He not only celebrated studio parties that have become legendary there, but in 1964 also modernized the traditional masks and costumes dating from 1906 for a local carnival guild, the "Holzäpfel" (Crab Apples). There is a photo showing him in his workshop in front of a steel relief sculpture he is currently working on – standing with legs apart, with two grinding discs in his hands and with the Crab Apple mask on his head. The photo obviously and in a quite natural way links his artistic work with his involvement in the Dunningen carnival. He was equally passionate, precise and obsessed with detail in his work in both fields. In addition to the costume, he also invented a new fools’ leap for the carnival procession, which he and his wife, a music teacher, got everyone to practice until all of the mask-wearers had full command of the correct ‘twitch’.</p><p>The two areas of his work have little in common aesthetically. His silvery steel sculptures are abstract, part of his contribution to the modernism of the 1950s, which received recognition through his participation in the Documenta in Kassel. But still, they also have a thread of comedy running through them sometimes, particularly the gigantic ‘Metal Worms’ and the steles shining in glaring sunlight – abstract steel knights pointing their sharp extremities like daggers, swords, or lances in all directions.</p><p>By contrast, the Crab Apple masks and the costumes that go with them have a realistically folklore design. Despite this, the overall impression made by the costume is not antiquated, but modern. The colours are clear and above all the crab-apple head shines with such a crisp freshness that you feel you’d like to bite into it – even when you know that the Dunningen apples are hard and bitter, better for making apple-juice with. Incidentally, the chubby red cheeks of the smiling apple face are strongly reminiscent for me of the Baroque puttion the pulpit in the chapel in Rottweil. Hauser himself probably had Mona Lisa’s smile in mind, however.<a href="#_ftn1" title="">[4]</a></p><p>Hauser also made the accompanying accessories and equipment needed for the processions and Fools’ Courts in the same casual and easy way, but always with solid craftsmanship, functionally well-designed and aesthetically conceived to create a consistent overall picture. In addition, he modernized the traditional knot-wood masks and the costume belonging to it. Hils described the new design as follows:</p><p> ‘The rustic carving in the old knot-wood masks did not appeal to Hauser. For the Carnival in 1965, Hauser had a knot-wood costume made for his wife Gretel out of hessian material with painting showing branches, leaves and apples. He carved a new mask for Gretel’s costume, with fine grooves, sawn-off branches, knots, etc.; even in its uncarved state, the mask already had a demonic appearance like that of African cult masks. The choice of paint for it was not easy, and finally we agreed on a dark brown background. The finely carved grooves were given a verdigris patina, the parts round the mouth were in pure ultramarine blue, and the rings of the eyes, the mouth and warts had a red patina. The sawn-off knots were natural-coloured. As the mask was hand-carved and the fine grooves were close together, it was not possible get the desired chiaroscuro contrast, but Hauser was delighted with it. The mask is in Hauser’s mask cupboard in the black house in Rottweil.’<a href="#_ftn1" title="">[5]</a></p><p>In contrast to modern art, in which – as the term already implies – fashion always plays a role to some extent when ‘eternal values’ are involved, Hauser created in his crab apple and tree costumes in Dunningen a very special monument that is rarely encountered in contemporary art, and one that has acquired a different kind of permanence as part of folk art and local tradition – a permanence that comes from the stability of rural customs.</p><p>And so they continue to leap and stride every year afresh, merrily and thoughtfully: one leap with the left leg, one leap with the right leg, one stride with the left leg, one stride with the right leg. And so on.</p><p></p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[1]</a> Born in Stuttgart on 4 September 1888, died in Baden-Baden at the age of 55 on 13 April 1943.</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[2]</a> Born in Freiburg/Fribourg on 22 May 1925, died in Berne 30 August 1991. Also known as Jeannot, Tinguely was a Swiss painter and sculptor associated with Nouveau Réalisme. </p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[3]</a> Born in Rietheim-Weilheim on 15 December 1930, died in Rottweil on 28 March 2004.</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[4]</a> At least, this is what is reported by the painter Herbert Hils in his recollections of Erich Hauser (typescript in the ownership of Alfred Grigas, Dunningen): ‘The masks were not meant to have different facial expressions as they had had previously, but were to be presented with a slight smile like the Mona Lisa. Hauser was capable of carving freehand any facial expression he wanted. His masks have an E.H. monogram on the inside. One of the finest masks by Hauser is a child’s mask, which he carved at the last minute before the Carnival for his assistant Hans Bloch’s little daughter. The laugh lines round its eyes make the mask unmistakable.’</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[5]</a> Ibid.</p><p></p><p><strong>The Author:</strong></p><p>Michael Cornelius Zepter, born 1938 in Cologne, artist und author. </p> </div> </div> </div> http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/oskar-schlemmer-jean-tinguely-erich-hauser#comments Bauhaus Faces Research Fri, 21 Mar 2014 20:18:31 +0000 Michael Cornelius Zepter 8579 at http://bauhaus-online.de Photography as a medium for architectural information: http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/photography-as-a-medium-for-architectural-information <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text-upper"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>An exhibition on “NEW ARCHITECTURE! Modern Architecture in Images and Books” at the <a href="http://www.bauhaus.de">Bauhaus-Archiv / Museum für Gestaltung in Berlin</a> – from 12 March to 10 June 2014 – is providing photographic insights into the wide range of architecture seen in early 20th-century Germany. Based on four photo books on “Contemporary German Architecture” published by the architectural journalist and art historian Walter Müller-Wulckow (1886–1964) between 1925 and 1932, numerous original photographs illustrate the stylistic breadth of buildings erected between 1900 and 1930 – from innovative Bauhaus buildings to conservative variants on modernist architecture.</p><p></p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-extrabild"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/photography-as-a-medium-for-architectural-information" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full imagecache-linked imagecache-article_full_linked"><img src="http://bauhaus-online.de/files/imagecache/article_full/magazin-bilder/1_chilehaus__hamburg_1922-1924__architekt_fritz_hger__foto_carl_und_adolf_dransfeld__landesmuseum_oldenburg.jpg" alt="" title="Kontorhaus Chilehaus, Hamburg, 1922-1924 Architect: Fritz Höger Photographer: Carl und Adolf Dransfeld Landesmuseum für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte Oldenburg (State Museum of Art and Cultural History in Oldenburg)" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full" width="323" height="435" /></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-emvideo field-field-article-video"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/photography-as-a-medium-for-architectural-information"></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>An exhibition on “NEW ARCHITECTURE! Modern Architecture in Images and Books” at the <a href="http://www.bauhaus.de">Bauhaus-Archiv / Museum für Gestaltung in Berlin</a> – from 12 March to 10 June 2014 – is providing photographic insights into the wide range of architecture seen in early 20th-century Germany. Based on four photo books on “Contemporary German Architecture” published by the architectural journalist and art historian Walter Müller-Wulckow (1886–1964) between 1925 and 1932, numerous original photographs illustrate the stylistic breadth of buildings erected between 1900 and 1930 – from innovative Bauhaus buildings to conservative variants on modernist architecture. The exhibition is accompanied by a varied programme of events, as well as a 285-page highly illustrated catalogue.</p><p>“Walter Müller-Wulckow’s books are contrasted in the exhibition with other contemporary publications about the New Architecture, showing how photography was used to tell very different stories about modernism,” says Dr. Annemarie Jaeggi, Director of the Bauhaus-Archiv.</p><p>Müller-Wulckow’s four photographic books were divided into different building types – “Bauten der Arbeit und des Verkehrs” [Work and Traffic Buildings] (<a href="/en/atlas/jahre/1925" title="1925">1925</a>), “Wohnbauten und Siedlungen” [Residential Buildings and Estates] (<a href="/en/atlas/jahre/1928" title="1928">1928</a>), “Bauten der Gemeinschaft” [Community Buildings] (1928) and “Die Deutsche Wohnung” [The German Apartment] (<a href="/en/atlas/jahre/1930" title="1930">1930</a>). They were published inexpensively with large print runs in the popular “Blue Books” series by the Karl Robert Langewiesche publishing house, with the popular-educational aim of making progressive architectural developments in Germany accessible in a simple and comprehensible way to a wide public. Reduced to a minimum of text, they present full-page architectural photos, usually arranged in pairs, according to formal and aesthetic criteria. Almost forgotten for decades, Walter Müller-Wulckow is regarded today, thanks to his publications on modern architecture and housing, as one of the most influential advocates of the architectural avant-garde in Germany.</p><p>In preparing the publications, Müller-Wulckow collected thousands of architectural photographs, 451 of which were published. Along with the original books, the exhibition is now showing more than 100 original photographs that illustrate how the books were compiled – from the collection of the photos to their selection, arrangement and retouching, up to publication. Architectural photos by Arthur Köster, Hugo Schmölz and the Bauhaus photographer <a href="/en/atlas/personen/lucia-moholy" title="Lucia Moholy">Lucia Moholy</a> can be seen, along with work by many other photographers. Photos of many works by Bauhaus architects are included: the <a href="/en/atlas/werke/fagus-werk-factory" title="Fagus-Werk Factory">Fagus-Werk Factory</a>, the <a href="/en/atlas/werke/bauhaus-building-dessau" title="Bauhaus Building Dessau">Bauhaus building</a> and the <a href="/en/atlas/werke/masters%E2%80%99-houses" title="Masters’ Houses">Masters’ Houses in Dessau</a> designed by Bauhaus founder <a href="/en/atlas/personen/walter-gropius" title="Walter Gropius">Walter Gropius</a> can be seen in the exhibition, as well as images of furniture by Bauhaus members such as <a href="/en/atlas/personen/alfred-arndt" title="Alfred Arndt">Alfred Arndt</a>, Erich Dieckmann and <a href="/en/atlas/personen/ludwig-mies-van-der-rohe" title="Ludwig Mies van der Rohe">Ludwig Mies van der Rohe</a>. Buildings by famous architects such as Erich Mendelsohn and Peter Behrens are documented, as well as less familiar works.</p><p> “NEW ARCHITECTURE! Modern Architecture in Images and Books” is an exhibition presented by the Landesmuseum für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte Oldenburg in collaboration with the Bauhaus-Archiv / Museum für Gestaltung in Berlin.</p><p>Exhibition catalogue (in German):„Neue Baukunst. Architektur der Moderne in Bild und Buch“,ed. Claudia Quiring, Andreas Rothaus and Rainer Stamm. Bielefeld: Kerber, 2013, ISBN 978-3-86678-877-0, museum price € 24.80, bookshop price € 49.95</p><p>Additional exhibition venue:27 June–14 September 2014, Museum of Architecture, Wrocław, Poland</p><p>Photographers (Selection): Hermann Collischonn, Gustav Dähn, Adolf und Carl Dransfeld, Arthur Köster, Edmund Lill, Reinhold Lissner, Otto Lossen, Lucia Moholy, Ernst Scheel, Hugo Schmölz, Fritz Stoedtner, Arthur von der Trappen, Paul Wolff et al.</p><p>Architects (Selection): Adolf Abel, <a href="/en/atlas/personen/alfred-arndt" title="Alfred Arndt">Alfred Arndt</a>, Otto Bartning, Ernst Becker, Peter Behrens, Paul Bonatz und Friedrich Eugen Scholer, Anton Brenner, Curt von Brocke, Emil Fahrenkamp, Hans und Oscar Gerson, <a href="/en/atlas/personen/walter-gropius" title="Walter Gropius">Walter Gropius</a>, Erwin Gutkind, Bernhard Hermkes, Josef Hoffmann, Fritz Höger, Jacob Koerfer, Ferdinand Kramer, Carl Krayl, Ludwig Lemmer, Luckhardt &amp; Anker, Ernst May, Erich Mendelsohn, Edmund Meurin, <a href="/en/atlas/personen/adolf-meyer" title="Adolf Meyer">Adolf Meyer</a>, Josef Maria Olbrich, Hans Poelzig, Karl Schneider, Thilo Schoder, Schupp &amp; Kremmer, Bruno Taut, Heinrich Tessenow, Wilhelm Ulrich, Wirminghaus &amp; Kamper</p> </div> </div> </div> http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/photography-as-a-medium-for-architectural-information#comments Architecture Berlin Exhibition Photography Fri, 14 Mar 2014 08:53:51 +0000 Dina Blauhorn 8577 at http://bauhaus-online.de Re-examning Pole Dance http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/re-examning-pole-dance-0 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text-upper"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>Within the last two years, a small collection of videos showcasing <a href="http://bauhaus-online.de/en/atlas/personen/oskar-schlemmer">Oskar Schlemmer’</a>s work has appeared on the Internet, primarily on websites like YouTube. They were released without fan-fare or any kind of announcement—in fact the very legality of their existence online falls within a grey area shared by much of YouTube’s offerings. Most of these videos feature selected clips from “The Triadic Ballet”, an unsurprising fact given its renown among Schlemmer’s work. More recently, though, a single copy of Margaret Hasting’s 1968 film “Man and Mask: Oskar Schlemmer and the Bauhaus Stage” was uploaded in two parts, offering many viewers their first opportunity to see recorded performances of Schlemmer’s many other dances.</p><p>After reading various descriptions and seeing the available photographic documentation, finally viewing these dances in performance presents a noteworthy opportunity examine how the written word and stilled image measure up to a filmed recording. In this regard, the recreation of “Pole Dance” (Stäbetanz) stands out as particularly striking, especially when juxtaposed with an earlier, widely available, photograph of the dance. The picture features dancer Amanda von Kreibig, covered in black but wholly visible to the camera, her arms outstretched in a long diagonal, extended even further by two of the poles. It was taken by Albert Braun in 1927 and it presents “Pole Dance” in one of its earliest stagings. Consequently, it has long served as a primary visual entry into the piece—and with good reason; the photo is a remarkable work of standalone art. Von Kreibig’s pose is at once both strained and stoic. The dark anonymity of her masked figure, cut by these twelve white poles, evokes a mysterious, almost epic quality. It is as if the photograph had captured a grave and ancient ritual, embellished by unshakably Bauhauslian aesthetic touches. Truly, its interplay of diagonal lines and negative space echoes that found in <a href="http://bauhaus-online.de/en/atlas/personen/ludwig-hirschfeld-mack">Ludwig Hirschfeld-Mack’</a>s 1923 Bauhaus postcard, select László Maholy-Nagy collages, and even the occasional Kandinsky painting. Consequently, it upholds a particular narrative about the Bauhaus and its work, one that emphasizes abstraction over realism and a kind of mechanized geometry over naturalistic designs.</p><p>The recorded video of Margaret Hasting’s “Pole Dance” does not fit so neatly into this narrative, though the sum total of the differences between photograph and film are not all immediately apparent. What is instantly clear, however, is that the stilled photograph struggles to convey any real sense of movement. This is unfortunate, for movement— equally if not more than the individual poses— proves integral to the impact ofPole Dance. Furthermore, the photograph features the human performer far more visibly than Margaret Hasting’s staging, which has lit the stage in such a way that the actor disappears into the darkness, leaving an empty black canvas upon which the twelve white lines dance. This difference proves consequential to the work’s presentation. With their manipulator hidden, the titular poles of “Pole Dance” acquire additional prominence, and the entire piece achieves an engaging air of unpredictability— it is difficult to foresee where these poles will move next because it is difficult to see anything but the poles.</p><p>In this way, the video of Hasting’s “Pole Dance” offers a glimpse into what Schlemmer may have envisioned when he described the “absolute visual stage” or “Schaubühne,” in his essay “Man and Art Figure”.Such a theatre, Schlemmer wrote, would support pure “forms and colors in motion,” design-driven performances that would be at once “infinitely variable and strictly organized,” and whose realization would result in the human performer’s banishment from the stage, cast instead as “‘the perfect engineer’ at the central switchboard, from where he would direct this feast for the eyes.”[i]</p><p>Indeed, particular aspects of Hasting’s “Pole Dance” pay due deference to this description. The dance’s abstract designs, brought to life before the audience, are driven by both spatial and temporal choreography. Visual composition, juxtaposition, and repetition all intermingle with rhythm, timing, and duration— the piece truly is a work of ‘form in motion’, and the viewer’s experience encompasses the moments of stilled design (such as the one captured in the photograph) as well as their transitions. Each pole’s journey becomes its own narrative, performed with an organizational logic that draws the viewer further into the piece.</p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-extrabild"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/re-examning-pole-dance-0" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full imagecache-linked imagecache-article_full_linked"><img src="http://bauhaus-online.de/files/imagecache/article_full/magazin-bilder/obj.id_79910_0.jpg" alt="" title="T. Lux Feininger, Pole Dance I (Manda von Kreibig), 1927, Reproduction from ca. 1980 Bauhaus-Archive / Museum of Design, Berlin" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full" width="435" height="330" /></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-emvideo field-field-article-video"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/re-examning-pole-dance-0"></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>A closer examination of this logic provides “Pole Dance”a place of practical differentiation from Schlemmer’s overall description of the “Schaubühne”,as well. Whereas Schlemmer imagined some kind of technological apparatus to manipulate his visual forms, relegating the human to a switchboard in the process, Hasting’s “Pole Dance”casts her human performer as the very mechanism through which these poles move. As a result, an inescapably corporeal organization and logic rests at the heart of “Pole Dance’s”abstract designs and movement.</p><p>While it is possible that a lack of technological advancements necessitated this derivation from his envisioned “Schaubühne”, Schlemmer’s own writings paint an ambiguous picture of his ultimate opinion on the future role of human performers on stage. In “Man and Art Figure”, for example, Schlemmer lists “Abstraction,” “mechanization,” and the “new potentials of technology and invention” as the three most notable emblems of his time. Going further, he writes, “The theatre, which must be the image of our time and perhaps the one art form most peculiarly conditioned by it, must not ignore these signs.”[ii]But in his personal diary, Schlemmer suggests that an awareness of the contemporary zeitgeist does not then predicate the need to absolutely embrace it, writing, “Not machine, not abstract—always man!”[iii]</p><p>Appropriately, the dialectic found between these two positions provides “Pole Dance” its most engaging material. In rooting the performance onto the human body, “Stäbetanz”moves beyond the purely visual, becoming a piece about bodies in motion and the human effort exerted to create pure visual theatre. By obscuring the human performer through lighting and costume, though, this additional layer of meaning is never made wholly explicit to the audience. It is merely suggested, innocuously, in moments when the body’s rotation briefly obscures part of a pole behind itself or when a faint corporeal silhouette emerges between the intersections of the poles.</p><p>These moments possess a mesmeric power. The performer’s visual absence has an inverse effect on her/his presence in the space, drawing the viewer further into the performance, if only in an attempt to determine how it works, and what part of the body corresponds to each pole. As the piece progresses, each new design begets another round of questions— Is the performer kneeling or standing? Is that pole connected to both her/his ankle and knee? If s/he is holding this pole here, then how does that pole cross it there? It is here that “Pole Dance” becomes, strangely, an anatomy lesson. Through an aesthetic of mechanized abstraction, “Pole Dance” manages to return its audience to an experience of naturalism and to an encounter with the human body removed from affect.</p><p>Schlemmer’s theories espoused in “Man and Art Figure” have earned him close association with a particular strand of theatrical discourse, one that sought artistic expression unbound by the limitations of human consciousness by replacing the human actor with mechanized forms— Heinrich von Kleist and his mechanical dancers, for example, or Edward Gordon Craig and his kinetic scenery and dreams of the Übermarionette. But Margaret Hasting’s re-staging of “Pole Dance”reveals an intriguing twist on this dynamic. Rather than utilizing tools of the visual theatre to replace the human performer, the piece augments the two. “Pole Dance”, in its most synthesized reading,becomes an abstract amplification of the daily articulations found in the human body. The poles— in addition to serving as forms in motion— become a synecdochal skeleton. And in this way, “Pole Dance” is at once abstract, mechanized, and unmistakably human.</p><p> </p><p>[i] Oskar Schlemmer, “Man and Art Figure,” in: “The Theatre of the Bauhaus,” edited by Walter Gropius, trans. Arthus S. Wensinger (Middletown, Connecticut, 1961), p. 22.</p><p>[ii] Ibid., pp. 17–18.</p><p>[iii] Oskar Schlemmer,The Letters and Diaries of Oskar Schlemmer, selected and edited by Tut Schlemmer, trans. Krishna Winston (Middletown, Connecticut, 1972), p. 116.</p><p>  </p><p>Sam Gold is an actor, puppeteer, and theatre artist. As a 2011-2012 Thomas J. Watson Fellowship recipient, he was spent twelve months exploring the relationship between puppets and people in a variety of performance cultures around the world. He currently lives in New York. More information can be found at: <a href="http://www.samgolddoesstuff.com/">www.samgolddoesstuff.com</a>.</p> </div> </div> </div> http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/re-examning-pole-dance-0#comments Bauhaus Faces Research Mon, 09 Dec 2013 14:20:42 +0000 Sam Gold 8569 at http://bauhaus-online.de Paul Klee – Life and Work http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/paul-klee-life-and-work-0 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text-upper"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>In addition to previously unknown letters and photographs as well as a choice of about 200 works, the <a href="http://www.zpk.org">Zentrum Paul Klee</a> is showing <a href="/en/atlas/personen/paul-klee" title="Paul Klee">Paul Klee</a>`s newly restored reverse glass paintings, which have never been presented on such a large scale and which reveal new aspects about the life of Paul Klee. Visitors experience Klee as a brilliant artist, but also as a human being who lived between success and disappointment, between good times and bad.</p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-extrabild"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/paul-klee-life-and-work-0" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full imagecache-linked imagecache-article_full_linked"><img src="http://bauhaus-online.de/files/imagecache/article_full/magazin-bilder/paul_klee_in_seinem_atelier_kistlerweg_6_bern_sommer_1939_fotograf-_felix_klee_zentrum_paul_klee_bern_schenkung_familie_klee_c_klee-nachlassverwaltung_bern.png" alt="" title="Paul Klee in his studio, Kistlerweg 6, Bern, Summer 1939, Photographer: Felix Klee Zentrum Paul Klee, Bern Donation Family Klee" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full" width="435" height="300" /></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-emvideo field-field-article-video"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/paul-klee-life-and-work-0"></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>The research and conservation project of Paul Klee’s reverse glass paintings was financed by the Paul Klee Foundation of the Burgergemeinde of the City of Bern.</p><p>Fabienne Eggelhöfer curated the current exhibition.</p><p>The exhibition is open from 17 October 2013 until 30 March 2014</p> </div> </div> </div> http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/paul-klee-life-and-work-0#comments Bauhaus Faces Exhibition Painting Thu, 17 Oct 2013 19:27:35 +0000 Zentrum Paul Klee, Bern 8537 at http://bauhaus-online.de bauhaus.foto.film – behind the scenes http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/bauhausfotofilm-behind-the-scenes <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text-upper"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>At the end, the exhibition is ready. Streams of visitors pour in at the private preview, marvel at the splendid art works and enjoy the successful presentation. But the route to that day is usually a long one. Once the selection of works has been completed, the texts have been written and the graphic artist has been commissioned, the abstract concept develops step by step further to become the exhibition. Whether or not the idea simulated on paper that formed the starting-point can ultimately be put into practice only becomes clear in the final days as the exhibition is being set up before it opens.</p><p>For the "bauhaus.foto.film" exhibition, jointly produced by the <a href="/en/bauhaus-archiv-berlin" title="Bauhaus Archive / Museum of Design, Berlin">Bauhaus Archive / Museum of Design in Berlin</a> and the <a href="/en/stiftung-bauhaus-dessau" title="Stiftung Bauhaus Dessau">Bauhaus Dessau Foundation</a> for the 2013–14 <a href="http://www.alemanha-brasil.org">Year of Germany in Brazil</a>, the curators flew to São Paulo to set up the exhibition. When preparing the two parts of the exhibition in Germany, they had only had a vague idea of what the space would look like and what would be waiting for them in Brazil. The curators, Christian Hiller (film exhibition) and Sibylle Hoiman (who flew to Brazil to hang the photo exhibition in place of the exhibition’s curator), sum up below what they went through in the days before the exhibition’s opening (on 16 May) – one day in the preparation of "bauhaus.foto.film":</p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-extrabild"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/bauhausfotofilm-behind-the-scenes" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full imagecache-linked imagecache-article_full_linked"><img src="http://bauhaus-online.de/files/imagecache/article_full/magazin-bilder/bff_sp_ch_10.jpg" alt="" title="exhibition &quot;bauhaus.foto.film&quot; at the SESC São Paulo Pinheiros" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full" width="435" height="285" /></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-emvideo field-field-article-video"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/bauhausfotofilm-behind-the-scenes"></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>After a long wait for the equipment needed for the film exhibition – four semi-rotundas of gauze material had to be mounted on curved metal rails – a start can finally be made on setting it up, only two days before the opening. The exhibition architecture is already in place and almost all of the photos are already hanging on the walls as the first projection screen is finally being mounted. Moving it to its final location turns out not to be as easy as was hoped and it has to be done via the outside balconies. It is 10 a.m. on the Tuesday before the Thursday opening. Right up to the lunch break, tinkering about continues until at least part of the delicate material has been stretched. Then it’s lunchtime and everyone disappears – all we’re left with is the feeling that we’ll never manage it. After lunch, everything turns round: 20 people turn up to lend a hand together from all sides. Finally, the four constructions are all finished the same evening. But on the other side of the glass dividing wall in the exhibition space, another problem has emerged in the meantime: the large-format photo foils that were ordered don’t fit perfectly. Nerves increase again. However, a simple solution is quickly found. In the meantime, at least four different teams are scurrying around the exhibition (for hanging, lighting, media and rotundas) – each of them on its own mission, with the curators and producers of the exhibition in between them. Finally, everything fits together: the exhibition is complete.</p><p>On the Wednesday and Thursday, between countless interviews with the Brazilian press, the final touches still have to be made before the evening, when the exhibition space fills with people listening expectantly to the opening speeches and turning enthusiastically to look at the Bauhaus works.</p> </div> </div> </div> http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/bauhausfotofilm-behind-the-scenes#comments Berlin Dessau Exhibition Photography Mon, 30 Sep 2013 18:25:22 +0000 Anja Guttenberger 8518 at http://bauhaus-online.de The Bernau Trades Union College from A to Z http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/the-bernau-trades-union-college-from-a-to-z <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text-upper"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><a href="/en/atlas/personen/hannes-meyer" title="Hannes Meyer">Hannes Meyer</a> regarded the building as being "… like any object in nature, uninhibited and with no stylistic or aesthetic demands … !" He emphasized that it was a "…building of life and not of art". Through these qualities, the <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/the-bernau-trades-union-college-bundesschule-bernau-from-a-t" title="The Bernau Trades Union College (Bundesschule Bernau) from A to Z">The Bernau Trades Union College</a> (Allgemeiner Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund, ADGB) in Bernau near Berlin, built in <a href="/en/atlas/jahre/1929" title="1929">1929</a>, was to become one of the most significant buildings by the Swiss architect <a href="/en/atlas/personen/hannes-meyer" title="Hannes Meyer">Hannes Meyer</a>, who was then Director of the Bauhaus in Dessau.</p><p>Meyer completed the extensive and demanding project north-east of Berlin in collaboration with <a href="/en/atlas/personen/hans-wittwer" title="Hans Wittwer">Hans Wittwer</a>, with whom he had already collaborated before his time at the Bauhaus, and who was to succeed him as head of the department of architecture there. In addition to Hannes Meyer, the architects Max Taut, Erich Mendelssohn and Aloys Klement, among others, were invited by the ADGB to propose designs for the building. Hannes Meyer was the only one who satisfactorily met the requirements, which involved translating the ADGB’s social-education approach into an architectural solution while at the same time adapting the new building harmoniously into the idyllic natural scenery on the site. He received the commission and began work on the project in close collaboration with the various departments at the Bauhaus, where he had succeeded <a href="/en/atlas/personen/walter-gropius" title="Walter Gropius">Walter Gropius</a> as Director in <a href="/en/atlas/jahre/1928" title="1928">1928</a>. In addition to Wittwer’s collaboration, he also received support with the planning work from <a href="/en/atlas/personen/lotte-beese-stam" title="Lotte Beese (-Stam)">Lotte Beese</a>, Hermann Bunzel and <a href="/en/atlas/personen/arieh-sharon" title="Arieh Sharon">Arieh Sharon</a>, who were then still students at the Bauhaus and were later to become architects. For the fixtures and equipment, right down to the curtains, ideas and ways of implementing them were provided by the carpentry and weaving workshops at the<a href="/en/atlas/das-bauhaus/idee/bauhaus-dessau" title="Bauhaus Dessau"> Dessau Bauhaus</a>. The architectural ensemble was praised in the press, alongside many criticisms, as "the first work by the Bauhaus for the labour movement". Further education courses allowing trades union members a respite from everyday working life in natural scenery were held at the college after its opening.</p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-extrabild"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/the-bernau-trades-union-college-from-a-to-z" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full imagecache-linked imagecache-article_full_linked"><img src="http://bauhaus-online.de/files/imagecache/article_full/magazin-bilder/titel_die_adgb-bundesschule....jpg" alt="" title="book cover" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full" width="296" height="435" /></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-emvideo field-field-article-video"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/the-bernau-trades-union-college-from-a-to-z"></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>When the Nazis took power, free trades unions were banned and the <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/the-bernau-trades-union-college-bundesschule-bernau-from-a-t" title="The Bernau Trades Union College (Bundesschule Bernau) from A to Z">The Bernau Trades Union College</a> was closed on 2 May <a href="/en/atlas/jahre/1933" title="1933">1933</a>. It was confiscated and run as a "Nazi College" up to the end of the Second World War – although Hitler personally disliked the building’s flat-roofed structure. In 1945, the Soviet occupying forces took the college over and established a barracks and military hospital in it for a short time. In 1946, the facilities were restored to the trades unions, and extensive renovation work started following the plundering and damage that the building had suffered. The college received university status in January 1952 and arranged its curriculum accordingly. In 1977, the building was declared a protected monument. The college was closed after the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of communism.</p><p>In May 1990, an association called "baudenkmal bundesschule bernau" [Bernau National College Architectural Monument] was founded, and it still has its offices in one of the former teachers’ houses in the college complex. Peter Steininger and Günter Thoms, the authors of a 48-page brochure, "Die ADGB-Bundesschule Bernau bei Berlin",<a href="/en/magazin/artikel/the-bernau-trades-union-college-bundesschule-bernau-from-a-t" title="The Bernau Trades Union College (Bundesschule Bernau) from A to Z">The Bernau Trades Union College</a> outline the whole history of the 1933, from the original idea to today’s architectural monument – providing a glimpse behind the walls of the yellow clinker-built structure, which is often unjustly overlooked alongside the Bauhaus sites in Weimar, Dessau and Berlin.</p><h2>Bibliography</h2><p>Peter Steininger &amp; Günter Thoms, Die ADGB-Bundesschule bei Berli, Leipzig 2013.</p><p>EUR [ D ] 9.95</p><p>ISBN 978-3-86502-313-1</p> </div> </div> </div> http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/the-bernau-trades-union-college-from-a-to-z#comments Berlin Dessau Publication Mon, 30 Sep 2013 15:53:27 +0000 Anja Guttenberger 8514 at http://bauhaus-online.de Bauhaus Face: Lotte Beese http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/bauhaus-face-lotte-beese <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text-upper"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>Lotte Beese was born in Reisicht in Silesia, Germany (now Rokitki in Poland) on 28 January 1903. After her school-leaving exams in 1921, she took courses in stenography and typing to enable herself to go travelling all over Germany. Two years later, she arrived at the “Deutsche Werkstätten” [German Workshops] in the Hellerau district of Dresden. Although she was actually an office worker there, she was soon given a place in the institute’s own weaving workshop, where she learned the basics of weaving. In Hellerau, she met former students from the State Bauhaus in Weimar and their descriptions of it convinced her that the Bauhaus was exactly what she was looking for. Following an extended illness, she finally applied to the Bauhaus (which had in the meantime moved to Dessau) for the winter semester of <a href="http://bauhaus-online.de/en/atlas/jahre/1926" title="1926">1926</a>.</p><p>In her first semester, Lotte Beese – like all the students who were accepted for places – attended the <a href="http://bauhaus-online.de/en/atlas/das-bauhaus/lehre/Vorkurs-josef-albers" title="Preliminary Course by Josef Albers">preliminary course</a> taught by <a href="http://bauhaus-online.de/en/atlas/personen/josef-albers" title="Josef Albers">Josef Albers</a>. In addition, she took the supplementary subjects "Analytic Drawing" with <a href="http://bauhaus-online.de/en/atlas/personen/wassily-kandinsky" title="Wassily Kandinsky">Wassily Kandinsky</a>, "Lettering" with <a href="http://bauhaus-online.de/en/atlas/personen/joost-schmidt" title="Joost Schmidt">Joost Schmidt</a>, "Descriptive Geometry" and "Physics/Chemistry". On completing the basic course, Beese moved to <a href="http://bauhaus-online.de/en/atlas/personen/gunta-stoelzl" title="Gunta Stölzl">Gunta Stölzl</a>’s <a href="http://bauhaus-online.de/en/atlas/werke/weaving-workshop" title="Weaving Workshop">weaving workshop</a>. At the end of the <a href="http://bauhaus-online.de/en/atlas/jahre/1927" title="1927">1927</a>/<a href="http://bauhaus-online.de/en/atlas/jahre/1928" title="1928">28</a> semester, the young student had met all the requirements needed for her to switch to the Department of Architecture, newly opened in 1927, and she was the very first woman to study with <a href="http://bauhaus-online.de/en/atlas/personen/hannes-meyer" title="Hannes Meyer">Hannes Meyer</a> and later <a href="http://bauhaus-online.de/en/atlas/personen/hans-wittwer" title="Hans Wittwer">Hans Wittwer</a> in the department. In addition to architecture, she also learned the basics of statics, building materials, construction, heating technology, and urban planning. Only one year later, Lotte Beese left the Bauhaus voluntarily without completing a qualification. Her romantic involvement with the Bauhaus Director, Hannes Meyer, who was married at the time, made her period at the <a href="http://bauhaus-online.de/en/atlas/das-bauhaus/idee/bauhaus-dessau" title="Bauhaus Dessau">Bauhaus in Dessau</a> complicated. But she was an enthusiastic photographer while at the college and she left a large number of pictures of a quality that goes well beyond ordinary amateur photography.</p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-extrabild"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/bauhaus-face-lotte-beese" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full imagecache-linked imagecache-article_full_linked"><img src="http://bauhaus-online.de/files/imagecache/article_full/magazin-bilder/l6b_12635_57.jpg" alt="" title="Unknown Photographer, Lotte Beese (detail), ca. 1929 Bauhaus Archive / Museum of Design, Berlin" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full" width="435" height="360" /></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-emvideo field-field-article-video"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/bauhaus-face-lotte-beese"></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>In <a href="http://bauhaus-online.de/en/atlas/jahre/1929" title="1929">1929</a>, she moved to Berlin, where she initially worked in Hugo Häring’s architectural office and finally in Meyer’s private office in Berlin, collaborating in work on planning the <a href="http://bauhaus-online.de/en/atlas/werke/trade-union-school-of-adgb" title="Trade Union School of ADGB">building for the national college of the General German Trades Union League</a> (Allgemeiner Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund) in Bernau, near Berlin. When the project was completed, Beese had nothing more to do in Berlin. Through his connections with the architectural avant-garde in Czechoslovakia, <a href="http://bauhaus-online.de/en/atlas/personen/hannes-meyer" title="Hannes Meyer">Hannes Meyer </a>arranged a post for her in Brno with the architect Bohuslav Fuchs. In <a href="http://bauhaus-online.de/en/atlas/jahre/1930" title="1930">1930</a>, Beese followed Hannes Meyer to Moscow, where she carried out planning work for the city of Orsk (in Siberia) under the Dutch architect <a href="http://bauhaus-online.de/en/atlas/personen/mart-stam" title="Mart Stam">Mart Stam</a>. Lotte Beese’s son by Hannes Meyer, Peter, was born the same year. In the meantime, Meyer was already living with his future wife, Lena Bergner.</p><p>In 1935, Lotte Beese moved to Amsterdam with Mart Stam, whom she later married. She ran her own architectural office in Amsterdam until 1938. During the war years, she wrote a diploma dissertation at the College of Architecture in Amsterdam and received the diploma there in 1944. From 1946 to 1968, Beese worked as an architect involved in urban development in Rotterdam. She created the first car-free street in the Netherlands in 1947; starting in 1949, she was involved in the building of the ‘Pendrecht’ district and later ‘Alexanderpolder’ and ‘Onmoord’. She also taught at the Academy of Architecture and Urban Planning in Amsterdam.</p><p>Lotte Stam-Beese died on 18 November 1988 in Krimpen (Netherlands).</p><p></p><p>Bibliography</p><p>Copied documents at the Bauhaus Archive in Berlin</p> </div> </div> </div> http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/bauhaus-face-lotte-beese#comments Architecture Bauhaus Faces Dessau Photography Mon, 30 Sep 2013 15:46:52 +0000 Anja Guttenberger 8513 at http://bauhaus-online.de Bauhaus networks http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/bauhaus-networks <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text-upper"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>“Captured by the Time” was the title of an exhibition devoted to Bauhaus member Erich Borchert that was held in the Pushkin Museum in Moscow from December 2012 to January 2013. The exhibition commemorated a gifted artist who, as a convinced Communist, moved to Russia in 1930 along with his teacher, Hinnerk Scheper. Borchert received Russian nationality in 1939 but was nevertheless arrested in 1942 and died in a Kazakh penal camp in 1944, at the age of 37. Erich Borchert is thus one of the Bauhaus graduates who have previously been little studied and who is only now, just under 70 years after his death, receiving belated attention and recognition.<a href="#_ftn1" title="">[1]</a></p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-extrabild"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/bauhaus-networks" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full imagecache-linked imagecache-article_full_linked"><img src="http://bauhaus-online.de/files/imagecache/article_full/magazin-bilder/unbenannte_anlage_00004_web.jpg" alt="" title="Bauhäusler beim Netzwerken, um 1927-29?" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full" width="329" height="435" /></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-emvideo field-field-article-video"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/bauhaus-networks"></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>This is the starting-point for a new German Research Association (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG) project, “Bewegte Netzte” (Moving Networks) based at the Brandenburg Technical University in Cottbus and at the University of Erfurt. The project’s specific focus is on the networks built up by Bauhaus members particularly after the closure of the college in <a href="/en/atlas/jahre/1933" title="1933">1933</a>. To what extent were the links formed in Weimar, Dessau and Berlin sufficiently distinctive and the individuals’ identification with the institution sufficiently strong that an informal “Bauhaus community” was – or was not – able to sustain the individual members through difficult times?<a href="#_ftn2" title="">[2]</a> For example, there has been hardly any scholarly study of the lives of the 30–40 Bauhaus students and teachers who followed the second Director of the Bauhaus, <a href="/en/atlas/personen/hannes-meyer" title="Hannes Meyer">Hannes Meyer</a>, to Russia in 1930 – and not merely due to the language barrier. The reasons for this stretch far back into post-1945 history, when the reception of the Bauhaus was mainly determined by figures who had emigrated to the USA, such as Bauhaus founder <a href="/en/atlas/personen/walter-gropius" title="Walter Gropius">Walter Gropius</a> and <a href="/en/atlas/personen/herbert-bayer" title="Herbert Bayer">Herbert Bayer</a>. In his account of the Bauhaus, Gropius in particular liked to omit any mention of his successor Meyer, whom he regarded as being responsible for the politicization of the Bauhaus – a picture that has been gradually corrected since the end of the 1980s.<a href="#_ftn3" title="">[3]</a></p><p>Another neglected topic that has only received greater attention during the last 20 years is the role of women at the Bauhaus.<a href="#_ftn4" title="">[4]</a> They were marginalized by their male colleagues despite – or precisely because of – their success in the weaving and metalworking workshops at that time, and there is still a lack of a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the achievements of women in the Weimar Republic’s avant-garde institution. The same also applies to discussions of the Bauhaus in the United States, dominated by Gropius. It was only in early 2000s that this field was opened up by a comprehensive description of the female and male members of the Bauhaus in North America.<a href="#_ftn5" title="">[5]</a></p><p>Most recently, the Bauhaus anniversary year in 2009, with its wealth of different exhibitions and accompanying publications, critically questioned the view of the “Bauhaus myth”<a href="#_ftn6" title="">[6]</a> and substantially broadened it.<a href="#_ftn7" title="">[7]</a> This may have made the existing gaps all the more clearly visible, particularly since research studies had primarily focused on the period in which the Bauhaus existed as an institution. Research on exiles, although not focusing purely on the Bauhaus, had already made major contributions here.<a href="#_ftn8" title="">[8]</a> But the descriptions often end in the fateful year of 1933, in which the Nazi seizure of power dramatically determined the careers of many Bauhaus members.<a href="#_ftn9" title="">[9]</a> A recent publication on the lives of Bauhaus women under Nazism has provided an impressive account of this.<a href="#_ftn10" title="">[10]</a></p><p>The DFG project, planned for three and a half years, aims to fill these gaps. The three Bauhaus successor institutions – the <a href="/en/bauhaus-archiv-berlin" title="Bauhaus Archive / Museum of Design, Berlin">Bauhaus Archive in Berlin</a>, the <a href="/en/stiftung-bauhaus-dessau" title="Stiftung Bauhaus Dessau">Bauhaus Dessau Foundation</a> and the <a href="/en/klassik-stiftung-weimar" title="Weimar Classics Foundation">Weimar Classics Foundation</a> – are intensively involved in the project as collaborative partners.</p><p>The group of Bauhaus members who emigrated to Russia is only one of the six networks that are being more precisely investigated in Cottbus and Erfurt. The previously little-known Bauhaus graduates who remained in Germany after 1933 and tried to come to terms with the system in various ways will also be examined.<a href="#_ftn11" title="">[11]</a> In addition, the students who moved to the Netherlands during the 1930s for a mixture of economic, political and personal reasons will also be investigated. Another group that needs to be studied is that of the photographers and commercial graphic artists associated with the artistic figures of <a href="/en/atlas/personen/herbert-bayer" title="Herbert Bayer">Herbert Bayer</a> and <a href="/en/atlas/personen/laszlo-moholy-nagy" title="László Moholy-Nagy">László Moholy-Nagy</a>. A fifth network that will be examined consists of the students and artist friends of the sculptor<a href="/en/atlas/personen/gerhard-marcks" title="Gerhard Marcks"> Gerhard Marcks</a>. Last but not least, the sixth group, featuring <a href="/en/atlas/personen/walter-gropius" title="Walter Gropius">Walter Gropius</a> and his lasting relationships with important Bauhaus members, will also undergo intensive analysis.</p><p>The choice of these highly varied networks is by no means arbitrary. The project is characterized by close collaboration between the two specialist disciplines of art history (BTU Cottbus, Prof. Magdalena Droste) and communications studies (University of Erfurt, Prof. Patrick Rössler). The art historians are summing up the existing biographical research and expanding it through extensive archival research, and the findings obtained are being entered into a database managed by the communications studies specialists. The database will provide a new type of visual access to the historical information by means of a graphic analysis. It is to be managed by the media designers and doctoral students Jens Weber and Andreas Wolter. This methodological access route will make the networks’ differences and common features, their formation, development and dissolution tangible in graphic form and will in turn allow conclusions to be drawn regarding the influence of the Bauhaus as a whole. The approach will thus continue a series of recent efforts to make network analysis, with its origins in the social sciences, fruitful for historical studies.<a href="#_ftn12" title="">[12]</a> The discovery and description of several Bauhaus networks existing in parallel with one another after 1933 will at the same time help to relativize the predominant pattern of interpretation featuring a single transatlantic success story.</p><p>The results are to be published on a digital research platform when the project is completed. There is thus still a little time left before the next anniversary year in 2019 to examine the Bauhaus in a fresh way as a network history, bringing lesser-known names out of oblivion and revealing the Bauhaus members’ intricate balance between artistic independence and the limitations of existence in politically difficult conditions.</p><p>Dr. Anke Blümm, BTU Cottbus</p><p></p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[1]</a> "In der Zeit gefangen". Erich Borchert (1907-1944). Graphics from the artist’s family, 6 Dec., 2012 – 17 Febr., 2013, Puschkin-Museum, Moscow.
</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[2]</a> Patrick Rössler et al., Von der Institution als Community: Das Bauhaus als kommunikatives Netzwerk, in Medien Journal, 2, 2011, pp. 16-32.
</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[3]</a> Cf. Bauhaus-Archiv Berlin, hannes meyer 1889-1954. architekt urbanist lehrer, Berlin 1989.
</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[4]</a> Anja Baumhoff, The gendered world of the Bauhaus, Frankfurt/Main 2001.</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[5]</a> Gabriele Grawe, Call for action. Mitglieder des Bauhauses in Nordamerika, Weimar 2002.
</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[6]</a> Anja Baumhoff &amp; Magdalena Droste (eds.), Mythos Bauhaus. Zwischen Selbsterfindung und Enthistorisierung, Berlin 2009.
</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[7]</a> Ulrike Bestgen &amp; Ute Ackermann (eds.), Das Bauhaus kommt aus Weimar, Berlin 2009; Leah Dickerman &amp; Barry Bergdoll (eds.), Bauhaus 1919–1933 – workshops for modernity, New York 2009; Annika Strupkus (ed.), Bauhaus global, Berlin 2010; Ute Ackermann et al. (eds.), Streit ums Bauhaus, Erfurt 2009; Patrick Rössler (ed.), Bauhauskommunikation - innovative Strategien im Umgang mit Medien, interner und externer Öffentlichkeit, Berlin 2009.
</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[8]</a> Hartmut Krug &amp; Michael Nungesser (eds.), Kunst im Exil in Großbritannien 1933–1945, Berlin 1986; Burcu Dogramaci &amp; Karin Wimmer (eds.), Netzwerke des Exils. Künstlerische Verflechtungen, Austausch und Patronage nach 1933, Berlin 2011.
</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[9]</a> Volkhard Knigge &amp; Harry Stein (eds.), Franz Ehrlich. Ein Bauhäusler in Widerstand und Konzentrationslager, Weimar 2009.
</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[10]</a> Inge Hansen-Schaberg et al., Entfernt. Frauen des Bauhauses während der NS-Zeit – Verfolgung und Exil, München 2012.
</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[11]</a> Cf. Winfried Nerdinger (ed.), Bauhaus-Moderne im Nationalsozialismus. Zwischen Anbiederung und Verfolgung, München 1993.
</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[12]</a> Cf. For example the website <a href="http://www.historicalnetworkresearch.org/">http://www.historicalnetworkresearch.org/</a></p><p> </p><p> </p> </div> </div> </div> http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/bauhaus-networks#comments History Publication Research Mon, 30 Sep 2013 15:20:26 +0000 Anke Blümm 8510 at http://bauhaus-online.de Who invented it? http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/who-invented-it <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text-upper"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>“Personally, I would have wished my successor quieter times, a less stormy atmosphere, calmer emotions and less thirst for sensationalism, in order to complete a task that we who belonged to a previous generation had taken up – i.e., the development of a new style. The College of Applied Art and the Applied Art Seminar in Weimar owe their origins to that idea and they vigorously promoted that goal … The State Bauhaus has been called upon to continue the work that was started. If it has now chosen methods that appear to the public to be too radical, it is because after the war a terrible anarchy of taste and a corruption of the senses through false luxury, spread among the ‘nouveaux riches’,have threatened to call into question again all of the successes achieved by our long efforts … In the deep conviction of these feelings, I have decided as the creator of these two institutions – the College of Applied Art and the Applied Art Seminar – which have been united as the State Bauhaus and now form integral parts of it, to pass on to you this conviction of mine.”<a href="#_ftn1" title="">[1]</a></p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-extrabild"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/who-invented-it" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full imagecache-linked imagecache-article_full_linked"><img src="http://bauhaus-online.de/files/imagecache/article_full/magazin-bilder/vandevelde.jpg" alt="" title="Henry van de Velde, ca. 1908 Photography by Louis Held Weimar Classics Foundation" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full" width="435" height="330" /></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-emvideo field-field-article-video"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/who-invented-it"></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>Historians of the Bauhaus have in the meantime certainly recognized its roots in applied art and the academic world and view the institute’s development in this context. However, the important issue of the relationship between innovation and traditions at the Bauhaus continues to be an extremely interesting area of debate. Can we really agree with van de Velde, the author of the above lines, that the Bauhaus was the “continuation of his college of applied art using radical methods”? He is calling attention to a legacy inherited by the Bauhaus about which Gropius preferred to remain silent, and he himself is deliberately ignoring the Weimar College of Fine Arts, which along with the College of Applied Art also formed a significant component of the “heritage” of the Bauhaus.</p><p>The fact is that in the spring of <a href="/en/atlas/jahre/1919" title="1919">1919</a>, the Bauhaus was located in the college buildings designed by van de Velde, and the new association included several of the master craftsmen from the former College of Applied Art. Fundamental ideas in its programme, such as workshop training and the economic independence it hoped to achieve through production work, had already been pioneered by van de Velde. He had supported ideas for the reform of art colleges and proposed that workshops for tapestry, embroidery and lace manufacture should be affiliated to the academies of painting and sculpture.<a href="#_ftn1" title="">[2]</a> Van de Velde saw the engineer, rather than the artist, as holding the keys to a New Style. This seems to anticipate <a href="/en/atlas/personen/walter-gropius" title="Walter Gropius">Gropius’</a>s views, although for the younger man it was the architect who was the central figure.</p><p>However, Gropius’s appointment in Weimar suggested that the College of Applied Arts would be continued, as he was van de Velde’s proposed candidate. The two artists had attracted attention with outstanding contributions to the “Werkbund” exhibition in Cologne in 1914, and they had stood side by side against the defenders of standardization during the “Werkbund”controversy that followed. Despite this, and despite all the apparently obvious historiographic consistency of a development from the College of Applied Art to the Bauhaus, it should not be overlooked that between the closure of the former institute and the founding of the latter a world war had raged that created a fundamental change in conditions and made a seamless continuation of history barely conceivable. The reasons for van de Velde’s removal from Weimar and for the radical nature of the Bauhaus were ultimately political in nature.</p><p>In the four years between the closure of the College of Applied Art and the opening of the Bauhaus, the College of Applied Art only consisted of a few privately run workshops. The real organizational structures such as the statutes and curriculum, which the Bauhaus initially took over in 1919, were borrowed from the Academy of Fine Arts of the Grand Duchy of Saxony, which had been able to continue operations at least on a smaller scale during the war years. Almost all of the professors and students of the Academy were taken on by the Bauhaus as masters and apprentices in the spring of 1919, and the new institute was given the quite unwieldy subordinate title: “Former Academy of Fine Arts of the Grand Duchy of Saxony and Former College of Applied Art of the Grand Duchy of Saxony in Amalgamation”.</p><p>The process of appointing Gropius took place practically between the fronts in Weimar art college politics, and it required all sorts of diplomatic skills. There had been considerable tensions between van de Velde and the then Director of the Academy of Fine Art, Fritz Mackensen, at the time when the College of Applied Art was still in existence, and it was rumoured that these had even culminated in a challenge to a duel. Although Gropius had been nominated by van de Velde, it was ultimately Mackensen who negotiated with him on behalf of the Grand Duke, while at the same time attempting to have the applied arts subordinated to the directorate of the Academy.</p><p>In 1915, discussions were finally broken off at a point at which the candidate had been granted broad independence for his own college, organizationally affiliated to the Academy of Fine Arts. No reopening of the College of Applied Arts was under discussion. Gropius had already clearly stated to Mackensen that he would not continue van de Velde’s teaching method, as he regarded it as above all as formally disciplining and restricting the students to a single style and considered this fundamentally mistaken. In an early version of the Bauhaus’s letterhead, mention of the College of Applied Arts was even omitted in the subtitle – for whatever reasons.</p><p>Despite all they had in common and their broad mutual agreement, the generational difference between Gropius and van de Velde was noticeable even around 1914–1915. This became particularly clear through the outcome of the “Werkbund”controversy, which Gropius had hoped would lead to the “Werkbund” leadership becoming much younger, but which ultimately failed partly due to the mediated positions of van de Velde and Osthaus.</p><p>The situation in the spring of 1919 was marked by two trends. On the one hand, the re-starting of negotiations with Gropius represented a return to a prewar procedure that had been interrupted, suggesting a resumption of the “good” traditions of the “old times”, although admittedly with fresh portents. On the other hand, the programme of the Bauhaus above all corresponded to the emotionalism of the November Revolution. The way in which the new Director’s efforts in one direction or another were evaluated depended above all on the viewer’s perspective. Both the professorial teaching staff and also the students appeared to be open to innovations, but they had been largely isolated since before the war. It is therefore not surprising that the masters Richard Engelmann and Walter Klemm attempted to have Henry van de Velde appointed to the Bauhaus – although they were probably still assuming that Gropius in any case intended to run the college as a kind of continuation of van de Velde’s Weimar College of Applied Arts, which had been closed in 1915. Gropius’s reaction to his two colleagues’ plan left no doubt about the far-reaching changes the Bauhaus would involve for existing conditions and the extent to which it was to differ from its predecessors. Despite all his personal sympathy for van de Velde, Gropius spoke out very clearly against reappointing and employing him at the Bauhaus.</p><p>Both the immediate new appointment of Bauhaus masters such as <a href="/en/atlas/personen/johannes-itten" title="Johannes Itten">Johannes Itten</a>, <a href="/en/atlas/personen/georg-muche" title="Georg Muche">Georg Muche</a> and <a href="/en/atlas/personen/paul-klee" title="Paul Klee">Paul Klee</a> and also the departure of students and lecturers who were interested in an academic artistic training to go to a separate college in 1921 gave the Bauhaus clear contours as an anti-academic, modern institute and unmistakably distinguished it from its predecessors.</p><p>The founding of the Bauhaus was to represent a radical new start. Whereas the aim at the College of Applied Arts had been to achieve a harmonious whole in design, the Bauhaus was dedicated to the harmonious human being. Whereas van de Velde had regarded the students as successors, Gropius saw their goal as lying in the free development of personality.</p><p>In a letter to Hans Curjel in 1961, Gropius still vigorously disputed that with the Bauhaus he had taken up the legacy of the Weimar College of Applied Art, and he described this idea as a false interpretation of the Bauhaus concept.</p><p>———</p><p><strong>A theme year is being devoted to Henry van de Velde, the pioneer for the Bauhaus, in 2013.</strong></p><p>———</p><h2></h2><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[1]</a> Cf. Kathleen James-Chakraborty, "Fragile Allianz: Über die Beziehung zwischen Henry van de Velde und Water Gropius", in Anja Baumhoff and Magdalena Droste, eds., Mythos Bauhaus (Berlin, 2009), p. 37.</p><p><a href="#_ftnref" title="">[2]</a> Henry van de Velde, letter to the State Parliament of Thuringia, 16 October 1924, cited after Volker Wahl, ed.,Das Staatliche Bauhaus in Weimar: Dokumente zur Geschichte des Instituts 1919–1926 (Weimar, 2009), pp. 393–4.</p><h2>Bibliography</h2><p>Ackermann, Ute. “Eine Allianz für Weimar? Henry van de Velde und Walter Gropius”, in Hellmut T. Seemann and Thorsten Valk, eds., Prophet des Neuen Stil. Der Architekt und Designer Henry van de Velde. Jahrbuch der Klassik Stiftung Weimar 2013,pp. 301–21.</p><p>James-Chakraborty, Kathleen. “Fragile Allianz: Über die Beziehung zwischen Henry van de Velde und Water Gropius,” in Anja Baumhoff and Magdalena Droste, eds.,Mythos Bauhaus (Berlin, 2009), pp. 35–51.</p> </div> </div> </div> http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/who-invented-it#comments History Weimar Mon, 30 Sep 2013 14:53:40 +0000 Ute Ackermann 8509 at http://bauhaus-online.de From Bauhaus to Palestine http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/from-bauhaus-to-palestine <div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-extrabild"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/from-bauhaus-to-palestine" class="imagecache imagecache-article_full imagecache-linked imagecache-article_full_linked"><img src="http://bauhaus-online.de/files/imagecache/article_full/magazin-bilder/bauhaus2013_frenkelplak_kleinweb.jpg" alt="" title="poster accompanying the exhibition &quot;From Bauhaus to Palestine: Chanan Frenkel – Ricarda and Heinz Schwerin&quot; " class="imagecache imagecache-article_full" width="308" height="435" /></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-emvideo field-field-article-video"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/en/magazin/artikel/from-bauhaus-to-palestine"></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-article-text"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>In the Thirties, around 25 former Bauhaus students and graduates emigrate to Palestine. The majority of them arrives in the British Mandate of Palestine as immigrants; others have already lived here as Zionist pioneers prior to their studies at the Bauhaus. One of these is Halle-born Chanan Frenkel, who returns in 1933 with a Bauhaus Diploma in his pocket. Two years later, Heinz Schwerin and Ricarda Meltzer also emigrate there.</p><p>Once, they had come to the Bauhaus in Dessau because it had made a name for itself worldwide as an outstanding school of modern design. But after the politically motivated dismissal of Hannes Meyer as the second Bauhaus director, the school is consumed by an existential crisis that also has an effect on the everyday lives of the students. In Palestine they attempt, under trying circumstances, to build up a new life and work environment.</p><p>The exhibition in Dessau traces thematic and biographical aspects of the lives lived between Germany and Palestine/Israel by the three Bauhaus people Chanan Frenkel and Ricarda and Heinz Schwerin. They typify the individual careers of Jewish and non-Jewish Bauhaus students, caught between Zionist fervor and enforced exile. It investigates their experiences and personal networks at the Bauhaus, their diverse migration paths between utopia and loss, and their opportunities for artistic and professional development. </p><p><strong>From 26 June until 13 October, 2013 in the Masters' House Muche/Schlemmer in Dessau-Roßlau.</strong></p><p><strong>accompanying programme:</strong></p><p>Readings and guided tours of the exhibition</p><ul><li>Thursday 12.9.2013, 6 pm to 8 pm</li><li>Sunday 13.10.2013, 11 am to 1 pm</li></ul><p>Jutta Schwerin reads on the terrace of the Muche/Schlemmer masters’ house (in poor weather in the Kandinsky/Klee masters’ house) from her book Ricardas Tochter. Leben zwischen Deutschland und Israel, published 2012 by Spector Books, Leipzig. Followed by a curator-led guided tour of the exhibition.</p><p><strong><br /></strong></p> </div> </div> </div> http://bauhaus-online.de/en/magazin/artikel/from-bauhaus-to-palestine#comments Bauhaus Faces Dessau Exhibition Tue, 25 Jun 2013 20:26:09 +0000 8470 at http://bauhaus-online.de