1923

Walter Gropius opens the Bauhaus exhibition in Weimar with the lecture "Kunst und Technik – eine neue Einheit" (art and technology – a new unity), initiating the shift from the crafts to industry.

Bauhaus The masters’ council resolves to display a show house complete with all interior fixtures, fittings and décor at the forthcoming exhibition. The majority of the Bauhaus rejects Lothar Schreyer’s play Mondspiel.

Nationalist members of the Thuringian parliament criticise the organisation and management of the Bauhaus. The education minister comes out in its defence.

Lothar Schreyer leaves the Bauhaus; Oskar Schlemmer heads the Bauhaus stage (and the stone and wood sculpture workshops). Itten departs for new pastures and is succeeded by Moholy-Nagy, who takes over the preliminary course and the metal workshop in October. Josef Albers heads the production workshops and the glass workshop.

Walter Gropius delivers a paper on the unity of art, technology and science in Hanover.

Bauhaus exhibition in Weimar with several displays (including international architecture, with works by Le Corbusier, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, J. J. P. Oud and others), publications and special events (including the Mechanical Ballet by Kurt Schmidt and Georg Teltscher in Jena). The pinnacle of achievement is the Haus am Horn (idea and design by Georg Muche, assisted by Adolf Meyer) with furniture and objects by Marcel Breuer, Erich Dieckmann, Benita Otte, Gyula Pap and others. Walter Gropius opens the exhibition with a paper entitled Kunst und Technik – eine neue Einheit (art and technology – a new unity). An (unbuilt) design by Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer for an extension (fitters shop) to the Fagus Werke in Alfeld anticipates major elements of the Bauhaus building (curtain wall etc.).

Classes by Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky accompany the preliminary course. Bauhaus students take their apprentice examinations in the second semester.

The army searches Walter Gropius’s home in response to an anonymous political tip-off. Theo van Doesburg polemicises against the Bauhaus, which has not developed in the way it envisaged.

Gropius seeks to separate the production workshops from teaching.

Politics French and Belgian troops occupy the Ruhr Area in order to enforce the payment of reparations, passive civil resistance.

Runaway inflation: 1 $ = 21,000 marks, 1 $ = 78,250 marks, 1 $ = 1,100,000 marks.

60 per cent unemployment in Germany. General strike. Stresemann administration (grand coalition).

Postwar crisis reaches a climax. 1 $ = 2 trillion marks. To end inflation, the rentenmark is introduced on the basis of land ownership: 1 rentenmark = 1,000 billion paper marks.

Communist revolts in Saxony, Thuringia and Hamburg. Workers’ government of Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD) and Communist Party of Germany (KPD) in Thuringia overthrown by the army.

Hitler-Ludendorff putsch suppressed in Munich. NSDAP banned throughout Germany. Marx (centrist) administration.

Science and technology Madsen develops whooping cough vaccine, wireless photo-telegraphy between Italy and United States, Henry Ford’s autobiography "My Life and Work" appears in German translation. German public radio goes on air.

Literature Rainer Maria Rilke’s "Duinese Elegies" and "Sonnets to Orpheus".

Theatre and music James P. Johnson’s Charleston.

Film Harold Lloyd’s "Safety Last".

Arts "The Large Glass, or the Bride Stripped Bare" by her bachelors by Marcel Duchamp, El Lissitzky’s Prounenraum in Berlin.

Architecture "Toward a New Architecture" by Le Corbusier; hat factory in Luckenwalde by Erich Mendelssohn.